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Volatiles in the Martian Crust

Author : Justin Filiberto,Susanne P. Schwenzer
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-08-30
Category : Science
ISBN : 9780128042014

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Book Volatiles in the Martian Crust Description/Summary:

Volatiles in the Martian Crust is a vital reference for future missions - including ESA’s EXO Mars and NASA’s Mars2020 rover - looking for evidence of life on Mars and the potential for habitability and human exploration of the Martian crust. Mars science is a rapidly evolving topic with new data returned from the planet on a daily basis. The book presents chapters written by well-established experts who currently focus on the topic, providing the reader with a fresh, up-to-date and accurate view. Organized into two main sections, the first half of the book focuses on the Martian meteorites and specific volatile elements. The second half of the book explores processes and locations on the crust, including what we have learned about volatile mobility in the Martian crust. Coverage includes data from orbiter and in situ rovers and landers, geochemical and geophysical modeling, and combined data from the SNC meteorites. Presents information about the nature, relationship, and reactivity of chemical elements and compounds on Mars Explores the potential habitability of Mars Provides a comprehensive view of volatiles in the Martian crust from studies of actual samples as well as from the variety of landed missions, including the MER and Curiosity rovers Delivers a vital reference for ongoing and future missions to Mars while synthesizing large data sets and research on volatiles in the Martian atmosphere Concludes with an informative summary chapter that looks to future Mars missions and what might be learned

Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities

Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2003-08-08
Category : Science
ISBN : 9780309089173

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Book Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities Description/Summary:

Within the Office of Space Science of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) special importance is attached to exploration of the planet Mars, because it is the most like Earth of the planets in the solar system and the place where the first detection of extraterrestrial life seems most likely to be made. The failures in 1999 of two NASA missions-Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander-caused the space agency's program of Mars exploration to be systematically rethought, both technologically and scientifically. A new Mars Exploration Program plan (summarized in Appendix A) was announced in October 2000. The Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), a standing committee of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council, was asked to examine the scientific content of this new program. This goals of this report are the following: -Review the state of knowledge of the planet Mars, with special emphasis on findings of the most recent Mars missions and related research activities; -Review the most important Mars research opportunities in the immediate future; -Review scientific priorities for the exploration of Mars identified by COMPLEX (and other scientific advisory groups) and their motivation, and consider the degree to which recent discoveries suggest a reordering of priorities; and -Assess the congruence between NASA's evolving Mars Exploration Program plan and these recommended priorities, and suggest any adjustments that might be warranted.

The Atmosphere and Climate of Mars

Author : Robert M. Haberle,R. Todd Clancy,François Forget,Michael D. Smith,Richard W. Zurek
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2017-06-29
Category : Science
ISBN : 9781108179386

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Book The Atmosphere and Climate of Mars Description/Summary:

Humanity has long been fascinated by the planet Mars. Was its climate ever conducive to life? What is the atmosphere like today and why did it change so dramatically over time? Eleven spacecraft have successfully flown to Mars since the Viking mission of the 1970s and early 1980s. These orbiters, landers and rovers have generated vast amounts of data that now span a Martian decade (roughly eighteen years). This new volume brings together the many new ideas about the atmosphere and climate system that have emerged, including the complex interplay of the volatile and dust cycles, the atmosphere-surface interactions that connect them over time, and the diversity of the planet's environment and its complex history. Including tutorials and explanations of complicated ideas, students, researchers and non-specialists alike are able to use this resource to gain a thorough and up-to-date understanding of this most Earth-like of planetary neighbours.

Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars

Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2006-04-22
Category : Science
ISBN : 9780309097246

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Book Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars Description/Summary:

Recent spacecraft and robotic probes to Mars have yielded data that are changing our understanding significantly about the possibility of existing or past life on that planet. Coupled with advances in biology and life-detection techniques, these developments place increasing importance on the need to protect Mars from contamination by Earth-borne organisms. To help with this effort, NASA requested that the NRC examine existing planetary protection measures for Mars and recommend changes and further research to improve such measures. This report discusses policies, requirements, and techniques to protect Mars from organisms originating on Earth that could interfere with scientific investigations. It provides recommendations on cleanliness and biological burden levels of Mars-bound spacecraft, methods to reach those levels, and research to reduce uncertainties in preventing forward contamination of Mars.

The Martian Surface

Author : Jim Bell
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2008-06-05
Category : Science
ISBN : 0521866987

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Book The Martian Surface Description/Summary:

Phenomenal new observations from Earth-based telescopes and Mars-based orbiters, landers, and rovers have dramatically advanced our understanding of the past environments on Mars. These include the first global-scale infrared and reflectance spectroscopic maps of the surface, leading to the discovery of key minerals indicative of specific past climate conditions; the discovery of large reservoirs of subsurface water ice; and the detailed in situ roving investigations of three new landing sites. This an important, new overview of the compositional and mineralogic properties of Mars since the last major study published in 1992. An exciting resource for all researchers and students in planetary science, astronomy, space exploration, planetary geology, and planetary geochemistry where specialized terms are explained to be easily understood by all who are just entering the field.

Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System

Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Task Group on Organic Environments in the Solar System
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2007-03-09
Category : Science
ISBN : 9780309102353

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Book Exploring Organic Environments in the Solar System Description/Summary:

The sources, distributions, and transformation of organic compounds in the solar system are active study areas as a means to provide information about the evolution of the solar system and the possibilities of life elsewhere in the universe. There are many organic synthesis processes, however, and ambiguity surrounds the relative effectiveness of these processes in explaining the distribution of organic compounds in the solar system. As a consequence, NASA directed the NRC to determine what processes account for the reduced carbon compounds found throughout the solar system and to examine how planetary exploration can advance understanding of this central issue. This report presents a discussion of the chemistry of carbon; an analysis of the formation, modification, and preservation of organic compounds in the solar system; and an assessment of research opportunities and strategies for enhancing our understanding of organic material in the solar system.

Remote Compositional Analysis

Author : Janice L. Bishop,James F. Bell III,Jeffrey E. Moersch
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2019-11-30
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
ISBN : 9781107186200

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Book Remote Compositional Analysis Description/Summary:

Comprehensive overview of the spectroscopic, mineralogical, and geochemical techniques used in planetary remote sensing.

Atmospheric Evolution on Inhabited and Lifeless Worlds

Author : David C. Catling,James F. Kasting
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2017-03-31
Category : Science
ISBN : 9780521844123

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Book Atmospheric Evolution on Inhabited and Lifeless Worlds Description/Summary:

A comprehensive and authoritative text on the formation and evolution of planetary atmospheres, for graduate-level students and researchers.

Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022

Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on the Planetary Science Decadal Survey
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2012-01-30
Category : Science
ISBN : 9780309224642

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Book Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 Description/Summary:

In recent years, planetary science has seen a tremendous growth in new knowledge. Deposits of water ice exist at the Moon's poles. Discoveries on the surface of Mars point to an early warm wet climate, and perhaps conditions under which life could have emerged. Liquid methane rain falls on Saturn's moon Titan, creating rivers, lakes, and geologic landscapes with uncanny resemblances to Earth's. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 surveys the current state of knowledge of the solar system and recommends a suite of planetary science flagship missions for the decade 2013-2022 that could provide a steady stream of important new discoveries about the solar system. Research priorities defined in the report were selected through a rigorous review that included input from five expert panels. NASA's highest priority large mission should be the Mars Astrobiology Explorer Cacher (MAX-C), a mission to Mars that could help determine whether the planet ever supported life and could also help answer questions about its geologic and climatic history. Other projects should include a mission to Jupiter's icy moon Europa and its subsurface ocean, and the Uranus Orbiter and Probe mission to investigate that planet's interior structure, atmosphere, and composition. For medium-size missions, Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 recommends that NASA select two new missions to be included in its New Frontiers program, which explores the solar system with frequent, mid-size spacecraft missions. If NASA cannot stay within budget for any of these proposed flagship projects, it should focus on smaller, less expensive missions first. Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022 suggests that the National Science Foundation expand its funding for existing laboratories and establish new facilities as needed. It also recommends that the program enlist the participation of international partners. This report is a vital resource for government agencies supporting space science, the planetary science community, and the public.

Mars - A Warmer, Wetter Planet

Author : Jeffrey S. Kargel
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2004-07-23
Category : Science
ISBN : 1852335688

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Book Mars - A Warmer, Wetter Planet Description/Summary:

Mars is the Solar System's other wild, wet, water world. Long believed to have become cold, dead, and dry aeons ago, we now having striking new proof, not only that Mars was a relatively warm and wet place in geologically recent times, but that even today there are vast reserves of water frozen beneath the planet's surface. This compelling new evidence may well boost the chances of a manned mission to Mars sooner, rather than later. The discovery is also forcing a complete rethink about the mechanisms of global planetary change. What does the drastic turn of events on Mars mean for Earth's climate system? Could life have thrived on Mars very recently, and might it survive today in short-term hibernation? Will humans soon be capable of living off the natural resources that Martian hydrogeology has naturally offered us? Will humans one day be capable of setting off the same chain of events that nature has repeatedly triggered to set off warm, wet episodes on Mars? How could Mars be terraformed into a New World? (And should we even contemplate doing so?) This book offers a visually beautiful, scientifically detailed and accurate presentation of the evidence that has forced this new revolution in Mars science. From the reviews:"Long believed to have been cold, dead and dry for eons, there is now striking new proof that not only was Mars a relatively warm and wet place in geologically recent times, but that even today there are vast reserves of water frozen beneath the planet's surface. In this absorbing, beautifully illustrated book, Kargel describes the still-unfolding revolution in our knowledge about the Red Planet and how future concepts of Mars will continue to be molded by new revelations of four billion years of geology". (LUNAR AND PLANETARY INFORMATION BULLETIN)nbsp; From the reviews:" This exhaustive, effusive, and enthusiastic book conveys the excitement of frontline scientific research about as well as can be done. Kargel describes himself as a member of the "Tucson Mafia," a group of scientists in full rebellion against the "Mars Establishment" and its belief in a cold, dry Mars. His ideas are presented in meticulous detail, supported by hundreds of superb pictures, many taken by the author himself. Some--perhaps most--of his ideas are controversial and may ultimately prove to be wrong, as he himself often points out, but we have to applaud the (sometimes career-risking) courage with which he has pursued them. In spite of the large amount of rather technical information, the reader is swept along by the author's enthusiasm in conveying it and ability to integrate it into a coherent vision. The reader also learns about the process of science: the thrill of having a new idea and discussing it with others at conferences and cafes (and bars), the drudgery often involved in pursuing the idea, the perils of the formal review process for publications and grant applications, and the roles played by personality conflicts and power politics. Summing Up: Enthusiastically recommended. All levels. "nbsp;(T. Barker, CHOICE, March 2005)

Chronology and Evolution of Mars

Author : R. Kallenbach,Johannes Geiss,W.K. Hartmann
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-11
Category : Science
ISBN : 9789401710350

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Book Chronology and Evolution of Mars Description/Summary:

Mars is about one-eighth the mass of the Earth and it may provide an analogue of what the Earth was like when it was at such an early stage of accretion. The fur ther growth of the Earth was sustained by major collisions with planetesimals and planets such as that which resulted in the formation ofthe Earth's moon (Hartmann and Davis, 1975; Cameron and Ward, 1976; Wetherill, 1986; Cameron and Benz, 1991). This late accretionary history, which lasted more than 50 Myr in the case of the Earth (Halliday, 2000a, b), appears to have been shorter and less catastrophic in the case of Mars (Harper et ai. , 1995; Lee and Halliday, 1997). In this article we review the basic differences between the bulk composition of Mars and the Earth and the manner in which this plays into our understanding of the timing and mechanisms of accretion and core formation. We highlight some of the evidence for early cessation of major collisional growth on Mars. Finally, we reevaluate the isotopic evidence that Mars differentiated quickly. Fundamental differences between the composition of Mars and that of other terrestrial planets are apparent from the planet's slightly lower density and from the compositions of Martian meteorites. The low density is partially explicable if there is a greater proportion of more volatile elements.

Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments

Author : Vivien Gornitz
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-10-31
Category : Science
ISBN : 9781402045516

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Book Encyclopedia of Paleoclimatology and Ancient Environments Description/Summary:

One of Springer’s Major Reference Works, this book gives the reader a truly global perspective. It is the first major reference work in its field. Paleoclimate topics covered in the encyclopedia give the reader the capability to place the observations of recent global warming in the context of longer-term natural climate fluctuations. Significant elements of the encyclopedia include recent developments in paleoclimate modeling, paleo-ocean circulation, as well as the influence of geological processes and biological feedbacks on global climate change. The encyclopedia gives the reader an entry point into the literature on these and many other groundbreaking topics.

Deep Carbon

Author : Beth N. Orcutt,Isabelle Daniel,Rajdeep Dasgupta
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2019-10-31
Category : Nature
ISBN : 9781108477499

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Book Deep Carbon Description/Summary:

A comprehensive guide to carbon inside Earth - its quantities, movements, forms, origins, changes over time and impact on planetary processes. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.

Safe on Mars

Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Aeronautics and Space Engineering Board,Committee on Precursor Measurements Necessary to Support Human Operations on the Surface of Mars
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2002-06-29
Category : Science
ISBN : 9780309084260

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Book Safe on Mars Description/Summary:

This study, commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), examines the role of robotic exploration missions in assessing the risks to the first human missions to Mars. Only those hazards arising from exposure to environmental, chemical, and biological agents on the planet are assessed. To ensure that it was including all previously identified hazards in its study, the Committee on Precursor Measurements Necessary to Support Human Operations on the Surface of Mars referred to the most recent report from NASA's Mars Exploration Program/ Payload Analysis Group (MEPAG) (Greeley, 2001). The committee concluded that the requirements identified in the present NRC report are indeed the only ones essential for NASA to pursue in order to mitigate potential hazards to the first human missions to Mars.

An Astrobiology Strategy for the Search for Life in the Universe

Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Astrobiology Science Strategy for the Search for Life in the Universe
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2019-04-20
Category : Science
ISBN : 9780309484169

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Book An Astrobiology Strategy for the Search for Life in the Universe Description/Summary:

Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe. It is an inherently interdisciplinary field that encompasses astronomy, biology, geology, heliophysics, and planetary science, including complementary laboratory activities and field studies conducted in a wide range of terrestrial environments. Combining inherent scientific interest and public appeal, the search for life in the solar system and beyond provides a scientific rationale for many current and future activities carried out by the National Aeronautics and Science Administration (NASA) and other national and international agencies and organizations. Requested by NASA, this study offers a science strategy for astrobiology that outlines key scientific questions, identifies the most promising research in the field, and indicates the extent to which the mission priorities in existing decadal surveys address the search for life's origin, evolution, distribution, and future in the universe. This report makes recommendations for advancing the research, obtaining the measurements, and realizing NASA's goal to search for signs of life in the universe.

Earth as an Evolving Planetary System

Author : Kent C. Condie
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2011-08-22
Category : Science
ISBN : 9780123852281

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Book Earth as an Evolving Planetary System Description/Summary:

Earth as an Evolving Planetary System, Second Edition, examines the various subsystems that play a role in the evolution of the Earth. These subsystems include such components as the crust, mantle, core, atmosphere, oceans, and life. The book contains 10 chapters that discuss the structure of the Earth and plate tectonics; the origin and evolution of the crust; the processes that leave tectonic imprints in rocks and modern processes responsible for these imprints; and the structure of the mantle and the core. The book also covers the Earth’s atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere; crustal and mantle evolution; the supercontinent cycle; great events in Earth history; and the Earth in comparison to other planets. This book is meant for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Earth Sciences, with a basic knowledge of geology, biology, chemistry, and physics. It also may serve as a reference tool for specialists in the geologic sciences who want to keep abreast of scientific advances in this field. Kent Condie's corresponding interactive CD, Plate Tectonics and How the Earth Works, can be purchased from Tasa Graphic Arts here: http://www.tasagraphicarts.com/progptearth.html Two new chapters on the Supercontinent Cycle and on Great Events in Earth history New and updated sections on Earth's thermal history, planetary volcanism, planetary crusts, the onset of plate tectonics, changing composition of the oceans and atmosphere, and paleoclimatic regimes Also new in this Second Edition: the lower mantle and the role of the post-perovskite transition, the role of water in the mantle, new tomographic data tracking plume tails into the deep mantle, Euxinia in Proterozoic oceans, The Hadean, A crustal age gap at 2.4-2.2 Ga, and continental growth