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New York City cop Barry Sutton investigates the devastating phenomenon the media has dubbed False Memory Syndrome-- a mysterious affliction that drives its victims mad with memories of a life they never lived. Neuroscientist Helena Smith dedicated her life to creating a technology that will let us preserve our most precious moments of our pasts. If she succeeds, anyone will be able to re-experience a first kiss, the birth of a child, the final moment with a dying parent. Together they face a force that attacks not just our minds but the very fabric of the past. Memory makes reality-- and the force is beginning to unmake the world as we know it. -- adapted from jacket.
Book Introduction to Recursive Programming Description/Summary:
Recursion is one of the most fundamental concepts in computer science and a key programming technique that allows computations to be carried out repeatedly. Despite the importance of recursion for algorithm design, most programming books do not cover the topic in detail, despite the fact that numerous computer programming professors and researchers in the field of computer science education agree that recursion is difficult for novice students. Introduction to Recursive Programming provides a detailed and comprehensive introduction to recursion. This text will serve as a useful guide for anyone who wants to learn how to think and program recursively, by analyzing a wide variety of computational problems of diverse difficulty. It contains specific chapters on the most common types of recursion (linear, tail, and multiple), as well as on algorithm design paradigms in which recursion is prevalent (divide and conquer, and backtracking). Therefore, it can be used in introductory programming courses, and in more advanced classes on algorithm design. The book also covers lower-level topics related to iteration and program execution, and includes a rich chapter on the theoretical analysis of the computational cost of recursive programs, offering readers the possibility to learn some basic mathematics along the way. It also incorporates several elements aimed at helping students master the material. First, it contains a larger collection of simple problems in order to provide a solid foundation of the core concepts, before diving into more complex material. In addition, one of the book's main assets is the use of a step-by-step methodology, together with specially designed diagrams, for guiding and illustrating the process of developing recursive algorithms. Furthermore, the book covers combinatorial problems and mutual recursion. These topics can broaden students' understanding of recursion by forcing them to apply the learned concepts differently, or in a more sophisticated manner. The code examples have been written in Python 3, but should be straightforward to understand for students with experience in other programming languages. Finally, worked out solutions to over 120 end-of-chapter exercises are available for instructors.
Book The Recursive Book of Recursion Description/Summary:
The future is everything we wanted it to be—and far more than we bargained for. It is the twenty-third century. Herb, a young entrepreneur, returns to the isolated planet on which he has illegally been trying to build a city—and finds it destroyed by a swarming nightmare of self-replicating machinery. Worse, the all-seeing Environment Agency has been watching him the entire time. His punishment? A nearly hopeless battle in the farthest reaches of the universe against enemy machines twice as fast, and twice as deadly, as his own—in the company of a disarmingly confident AI who may not be exactly what he claims. . . . Little does Herb know that this war of machines was set in motion nearly two hundred years ago—by mankind itself. For it was then that a not-quite-chance encounter brought a confused young girl and a nearly omnipotent AI together in one fateful moment that may have changed the course of humanity forever.
This book is devoted to recursion in programming, the technique by which the solution to a problem is expressed partly in terms of the solution to a simpler version of the same problem. Ultimately the solution to the simplest version must be given explicitly. In functional programming, recursion has received its full due since it is quite often the only repetitive construct. However, the programming language used here is Pascal and the examples have been chosen accordingly. It makes an interesting contrast with the use of recursion in functional and logic programming. The early chapters consider simple linear recursion using examples such as finding the highest common factor of a pair of numbers, and processing linked lists. Subsequent chapters move up through binary recursion, with examples which include the Towers of Hanoi problem and symbolic differentiation, to general recursion. The book contains well over 100 examples.
This book provides a comprehensive account of the role of recursion in language in two distinct but interconnected ways. First, David J. Lobina examines how recursion applies at different levels within a full description of natural language. Specifically, he identifies and evaluates recursion as: a) a central property of the computational system underlying the faculty of language; b) a possible feature of the derivations yielded by this computational system; c) a global characteristic of the structures generated by the language faculty; and d) a probable factor in the parsing operations employed during the processing of recursive structures. Second, the volume orders these different levels into a tripartite explanatory framework. According to this framework, the investigation of any particular cognitive domain must begin by first outlining what sort of mechanical procedure underlies the relevant capacity (including what sort of structures it generates). Only then, the author argues, can we properly investigate its implementation, both at the level of abstract computations typical of competence-level analyses, and at the level of the real-time processing of behaviour.
Book Recursion across Domains Description/Summary:
Recursion and self-embedding are at the heart of our ability to formulate our thoughts, articulate our imagination and share with other human beings. Nonetheless, controversy exists over the extent to which recursion is shared across all domains of syntax. A collection of 18 studies are presented here on the central linguistic property of recursion, examining a range of constructions in over a dozen languages representing great areal, typological and genetic diversity and spanning wide latitudes. The volume expands the topic to include prepositional phrases, possessives, adjectives, and relative clauses - our many vehicles to express creative thought - to provide a critical perspective on claims about how recursion connects to broader aspects of the mind. Parallel explorations across language families, literate and non-literate societies, children and adults are investigated and constitutes a new step in the generative tradition by simultaneously focusing on formal theory, acquisition and experimentation, and ecologically-sensitive fieldwork, and initiates a new community where these diverse experts collaborate.
As humans, our many levels of language use distinguish us from the rest of the animal world. For many scholars, it is the recursive aspect of human speech that makes it truly human. But linguists continue to argue about what recursion actually is, leading to the central dilemma: is full recursion, as defined by mathematicians, really necessary for human language? Language and Recursion defines the elusive construct with the goal of furthering research into language and cognition. An up-to-date literature review surveys extensive findings based on non-verbal communication devices and neuroimaging techniques. Comparing human and non-human primate communication, the book’s contributors examine meaning in chimpanzee calls, and consider the possibility of a specific brain structure for recursion. The implications are then extended to formal grammars associated with artificial intelligence, and to the question of whether recursion is a valid concept at all. Among the topics covered: • The pragmatic origins of recursion. • Recursive cognition as a prelude to language. • Computer simulations of recursive exercises for a non-verbal communication device. • Early rule learning ability and language acquisition. • Computational language related to recursion, incursion, and fractals • Why there may be no recursion in language. Regardless of where one stands in the debate, Language and Recursion has much to offer the science community, particularly cognitive psychologists and researchers in the science of language. By presenting these multiple viewpoints, the book makes a solid case for eventual reconciliation.
Book Recursion and Human Language Description/Summary:
The present volume is an edited collection of original contributions which all deal with the issue of recursion in human language(s). All contributions originate as papers that were presented at a conference on the topic of recursion in human language organized by Dan Everett in March 22, 2007. For the purpose of this collection all articles underwent a double-blind peer-review process. The present chapters were written in the course of 2008. Although the ‘recursive’ nature of linguistic expressions, i.e. the apparent possibility of producing an infinite number of expressions with finite means, has been noted for a long time, no general agreement seems to exist concerning the empirical status as well as mathematical formalization of this ‘characteristic’ of human languages or of the grammars that lie behind these utterances that make up these languages. Renewed interest in this subject was sparked by recent claims that ‘recursion’ is perhaps the sole uniquely human and as such universal trait of human language (cf. Chomsky, Hauser and Fitch 2000). In this volume, the issue of recursion is tackled from a variety of angles. Some articles cover formal issues regarding the proper characterization or definition of recursion, while others focus on empirical issues by examining the kinds of structure in languages that suggest recursive mechanism in the grammar. Most articles discuss syntactic phenomena, but several involve morphology, the lexicon and phonology. In addition, we find discussions that involve evolutionary notions and language disorders, and the broader cognitive context of recursion.
Since their inception, the Perspectives in Logic and Lecture Notes in Logic series have published seminal works by leading logicians. Many of the original books in the series have been unavailable for years, but they are now in print once again. This volume, the second publication in the Perspectives in Logic series, is an almost self-contained introduction to higher recursion theory, in which the reader is only assumed to know the basics of classical recursion theory. The book is divided into four parts: hyperarithmetic sets, metarecursion, α-recursion, and E-recursion. This text is essential reading for all researchers in the field.
Thinking Recursively Eric S. Roberts Digital Equipment Corporation Recursion: The process of solving large problems by breaking them down into smaller, more simple problems that have identical forms. Thinking Recursively: A small text to solve large problems. Concentrating on the practical value of recursion. this text, the first of its kind, is essential to computer science students’ education. In this text, students will learn the concept and programming applications of recursive thinking. This will ultimately prepare students for advanced topics in computer science such as compiler construction, formal language theory, and the mathematical foundations of computer science. Key Features: Concentration on the practical value of recursion. Eleven chapters emphasizing recursion as a unified concept. Extensive discussion of the mathematical concepts which help the students to develop an appropriate conceptual model. Large number of imaginative examples with solutions. Large sets of exercises.
Book Recursion Theory for Metamathematics Description/Summary:
This work is a sequel to the author's Gï¿½del's Incompleteness Theorems, though it can be read independently by anyone familiar with Gï¿½del's incompleteness theorem for Peano arithmetic. The book deals mainly with those aspects of recursion theory that have applications to the metamathematics of incompleteness, undecidability, and related topics. It is both an introduction to the theory and a presentation of new results in the field.
This monograph presents recursion theory from a generalized point of view centered on the computational aspects of definability. A major theme is the study of the structures of degrees arising from two key notions of reducibility, the Turing degrees and the hyperdegrees, using techniques and ideas from recursion theory, hyperarithmetic theory, and descriptive set theory. The emphasis is on the interplay between recursion theory and set theory, anchored on the notion of definability. The monograph covers a number of fundamental results in hyperarithmetic theory as well as some recent results on the structure theory of Turing and hyperdegrees. It also features a chapter on the applications of these investigations to higher randomness.
Book E-Recursion, Forcing and C*-Algebras Description/Summary:
This volume presents the lecture notes of short courses given by three leading experts in mathematical logic at the 2012 Asian Initiative for Infinity Logic Summer School. The major topics cover set-theoretic forcing, higher recursion theory, and applications of set theory to C*-algebra. This volume offers a wide spectrum of ideas and techniques introduced in contemporary research in the field of mathematical logic to students, researchers and mathematicians. Contents:Selected Applications of Logic to Classification Problem for C*-Algebras (Ilijas Farah)Subcomplete Forcing and L-Forcing (Ronald Jensen)E-Recursion (Gerald E Sacks) Readership: Mathematics graduate students, researchers in logic, set theory and related areas. Key Features:These are notes based on short courses given by three leading experts in set theory, recursion theory and their applicationsKeywords:Logic;Set Theory;Forcing;E-recursion;C*-Algebra;Recursion Theory;Computability Theory
Book Abstract Recursion and Intrinsic Complexity Description/Summary:
This book presents and applies a framework for studying the complexity of algorithms. It is aimed at logicians, computer scientists, mathematicians and philosophers interested in the theory of computation and its foundations, and it is written at a level suitable for non-specialists. Part I provides an accessible introduction to abstract recursion theory and its connection with computability and complexity. This part is suitable for use as a textbook for an advanced undergraduate or graduate course: all the necessary elementary facts from logic, recursion theory, arithmetic and algebra are included. Part II develops and applies an extension of the homomorphism method due jointly to the author and Lou van den Dries for deriving lower complexity bounds for problems in number theory and algebra which (provably or plausibly) restrict all elementary algorithms from specified primitives. The book includes over 250 problems, from simple checks of the reader's understanding, to current open problems.