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Norms of Nature

Author : Paul Sheldon Davies
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2003-01-24
Category : Science
ISBN : 0262262371

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Book Norms of Nature Description/Summary:

The components of living systems strike us as functional-as for the sake of certain ends—and as endowed with specific norms of performance. The mammalian eye, for example, has the function of perceiving and processing light, and possession of this property tempts us to claim that token eyes are supposed to perceive and process light. That is, we tend to evaluate the performance of token eyes against the norm described in the attributed functional property. Hence the norms of nature. What, then, are the norms of nature? Whence do they arise? Out of what natural properties or relations are they constituted? In Norms of Nature, Paul Sheldon Davies argues against the prevailing view that natural norms are constituted out of some form of historical success—usually success in natural selection. He defends the view that functions are nothing more than effects that contribute to the exercise of some more general systemic capacity. Natural functions exist insofar as the components of natural systems contribute to the exercise of systemic capacities. This is so irrespective of the system's history. Even if the mammalian eye had never been selected for, it would have the function of perceiving and processing light, because those are the effects that contribute to the exercise of the visual system. The systemic approach to conceptualizing natural norms, claims Davies, is superior to the historical approach in several important ways. Especially significant is that it helps us understand how the attribution of functions within the life sciences coheres with the methods and ontology of the natural sciences generally.

The Norms of Nature

Author : Malcolm Schofield,Gisela Striker
Publisher : Maison des Sciences de l'Homme
Release : 1986-01-01
Category : Ethics
ISBN : 2735101479

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Book The Norms of Nature Description/Summary:

Teleology and the Norms of Nature

Author : William J. FitzPatrick
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2017-09-25
Category : Philosophy
ISBN : 9781136712678

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Book Teleology and the Norms of Nature Description/Summary:

This work is an examination of teleological attributions i.e. ascriptions of proper functions and natural ends) to the features and behavior of living things with a view to understanding their application to human life.

The Norms of Nature

Author : Malcolm Schofield,Gisela Striker
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2007-08-16
Category : Philosophy
ISBN : 0521039886

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Book The Norms of Nature Description/Summary:

Can moral philosophy alter our moral beliefs or our emotions? Does moral scepticism mean making up our own values, or does it leave us without moral commitments at all? Is it possible to find a basis for ethics in human nature? These are some of the main questions explored in this volume, which is devoted to the ethics of the Hellenistic schools of philosophy. Some of the leading scholars in the field have here taken a look at the bases of the Stoics' and Epicureans' thinking about what the Greeks took to be the central questions of philosophy. Their essays, which originated in a conference held at Bad Homburg in 1983, the third in a series of conferences on Hellenistic philosophy, propose important interpretations of the texts, and pose some fascinating problems about the different roles of argument and reason in ancient and modern moral philosophy. This book will be of interest to moral philosophers and to scholars of Greek philosophy too.

Knowledge, Nature, and Norms

Author : Mark Timmons,David Shoemaker
Publisher : Wadsworth Publishing Company
Release : 2009
Category : Philosophy
ISBN : 0495097225

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Book Knowledge, Nature, and Norms Description/Summary:

Find everything you need for a solid introduction to philosophy with this brief, powerful text. One of the most concise introductory philosophy anthologies available, KNOWLEDGE, NATURE, AND NORMS: AN INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY features classical philosophy readings, short fiction, and literature from popular writers, as well as a wealth of effective learning tools.Concise, well-edited selections are designed to give first-time philosophy students what you need to succeed--a well-crafted focus on the essential elements of philosophical debate. Integrated learning tools, such as a comprehensive introductory essay at the beginning of the text, provides an overview of how to approach philosophy. Engaging Chapter Introductions highlight key arguments, while Reading Comprehension and Review Questions draw your attention to key ideas. A robust companion website further enhances learning with self-assessment exercises, study guides, and links to philosophical and other helpful resources.With this anthology, you’ll find a complete range of philosophical topics, including key issues in epistemology, metaphysics, and ethics. This thorough introduction is all within a book that’s one-third the length of a typical anthology for cost savings and unmatched clarity.

Blame

Author : D. Justin Coates,Neal A. Tognazzini
Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
Release : 2013
Category : Philosophy
ISBN : 9780199860821

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Book Blame Description/Summary:

What is it to blame someone, and when are would-be blamers in a position to do so? What function does blame serve in our lives, and is it a valuable way of relating to one another? The essays in this volume explore answers to these and related questions.

Blame

Author : D. Justin Coates,Neal A. Tognazzini
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2013-01-31
Category : Philosophy
ISBN : 9780199860845

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Book Blame Description/Summary:

What is it to blame someone, and when are would-be blamers in a position to do so? What function does blame serve in our lives, and is it a valuable way of relating to one another? The essays in this volume explore answers to these and related questions.

Against Nature

Author : Lorraine Daston
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2019-05-28
Category : Philosophy
ISBN : 9780262353816

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Book Against Nature Description/Summary:

A pithy work of philosophical anthropology that explores why humans find moral orders in natural orders. Why have human beings, in many different cultures and epochs, looked to nature as a source of norms for human behavior? From ancient India and ancient Greece, medieval France and Enlightenment America, up to the latest controversies over gay marriage and cloning, natural orders have been enlisted to illustrate and buttress moral orders. Revolutionaries and reactionaries alike have appealed to nature to shore up their causes. No amount of philosophical argument or political critique deters the persistent and pervasive temptation to conflate the “is” of natural orders with the “ought” of moral orders. In this short, pithy work of philosophical anthropology, Lorraine Daston asks why we continually seek moral orders in natural orders, despite so much good counsel to the contrary. She outlines three specific forms of natural order in the Western philosophical tradition—specific natures, local natures, and universal natural laws—and describes how each of these three natural orders has been used to define and oppose a distinctive form of the unnatural. She argues that each of these forms of the unnatural triggers equally distinctive emotions: horror, terror, and wonder. Daston proposes that human reason practiced in human bodies should command the attention of philosophers, who have traditionally yearned for a transcendent reason, valid for all species, all epochs, even all planets.

The Grammar of Society

Author : Cristina Bicchieri
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2005-12-12
Category : Philosophy
ISBN : 1139447149

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Book The Grammar of Society Description/Summary:

In The Grammar of Society, first published in 2006, Cristina Bicchieri examines social norms, such as fairness, cooperation, and reciprocity, in an effort to understand their nature and dynamics, the expectations that they generate, and how they evolve and change. Drawing on several intellectual traditions and methods, including those of social psychology, experimental economics and evolutionary game theory, Bicchieri provides an integrated account of how social norms emerge, why and when we follow them, and the situations where we are most likely to focus on relevant norms. Examining the existence and survival of inefficient norms, she demonstrates how norms evolve in ways that depend upon the psychological dispositions of the individual and how such dispositions may impair social efficiency. By contrast, she also shows how certain psychological propensities may naturally lead individuals to evolve fairness norms that closely resemble those we follow in most modern societies.

Explaining Norms

Author : Geoffrey Brennan,Lina Eriksson,Robert E. Goodin,Nicholas Southwood
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2013-09-05
Category : Philosophy
ISBN : 9780199654680

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Book Explaining Norms Description/Summary:

Norms are a pervasive yet mysterious feature of social life. In Explaining Norms, four philosophers and social scientists team up to grapple with some of the many mysteries, offering a comprehensive account of norms: what they are; how and why they emerge, persist and change; and how they work. Norms, they argue, should be understood in non-reductive terms as clusters of normative attitudes that serve the function of making us accountable to one another—with the different kinds of norms (legal, moral, and social norms) differing in virtue of being constituted by different kinds of normative attitudes that serve to make us accountable in different ways. Explanations of and by norms should be seen as thoroughly pluralist in character. Explanations of norms should appeal to the ways that norms help us to pursue projects and goals, individually and collectively, as well as to enable us to constitute social meanings. Explanations by norms should recognise the multiplicity of ways in which norms may bear upon the actions we perform, the attitudes we form and the modes of deliberation in which we engage: following, merely conforming with, and even breaching norms. While advancing novel and distinctive positions on all of these topics, Explaining Norms will also serve as a sourcebook with a rich array of arguments and illustrations for others to reassemble in ways of their own choosing.

Rules, Norms, and Decisions

Author : Friedrich V. Kratochwil
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1991-04-26
Category : Law
ISBN : 0521409713

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Book Rules, Norms, and Decisions Description/Summary:

This book assesses the impact of norms on decision-making. It argues that norms influence choices not by being causes for actions, but by providing reasons. Consequently it approaches the problem via an investigation of the reasoning process in which norms play a decisive role. Kratochwil argues that, depending upon the strictness the guidance norms provide in arriving at a decision, different styles of reasoning with norms can be distinguished. While the focus in this book is largely analytical, the argument is developed through the interpretation of the classic thinkers in international law (Grotius, Vattel, Pufendorf, Rousseau, Hume, Habermas).

The Foundation of Norms in Islamic Jurisprudence and Theology

Author : Omar Farahat
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2019-01-31
Category : History
ISBN : 9781108476768

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Book The Foundation of Norms in Islamic Jurisprudence and Theology Description/Summary:

This book offers a new way of understanding classical Islamic theories, holding that divine revelation is necessary for the knowledge of norms and its reading of the issue of reason breaks new ground in Islamic theology, law and ethics. It will appeal to students and scholars of Islamic studies, Islamic ethics, law and post-colonial theory.

In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of Health

Author : Dr Mahesh Ananth
Publisher : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Release : 2012-10-01
Category : Philosophy
ISBN : 9781409485629

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Book In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of Health Description/Summary:

One of the most controversial contemporary debates on the concept of health is the clash between the views of naturalists and normativists. Naturalists argue that, although health can be valued or disvalued, the concept of health is itself objective and value-free. In contrast, normativists argue that health is a contextual and value-laden concept, and that there is no possibility of a value-free understanding of health. This debate has fueled many of the, often very acrimonious, disputations arising from the claims of health, disease and disability activists and charities and the public policy responses to them. In responding to this debate, Ananth both surveys the existing literature, with special focus on the work of Christopher Boorse, and argues that a naturalistic concept of health, drawing on evolutionary considerations associated with biological function, homeostasis, and species-design, is defensible without jettisoning norms in their entirety.

Incorporating Corpora

Author : Gunilla M. Anderman,Margaret Rogers
Publisher : Multilingual Matters
Release : 2008
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
ISBN : 9781853599859

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Book Incorporating Corpora Description/Summary:

Covering a number of European languages from Portuguese to Hungarian, this volume includes many new studies of translation patterns using parallel corpora focusing on particular linguistic features, as well as broader-ranging contributions on translation 'universals'.

Norms of Liberty

Author : Douglas B. Rasmussen,Douglas J.Den Uyl
Publisher : Penn State Press
Release : 2010-11-01
Category : Political Science
ISBN : 0271046333

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Book Norms of Liberty Description/Summary:

How can we establish a political/legal order that in principle does not require the human flourishing of any person or group to be given structured preference over that of any other? Addressing this question as the central problem of political philosophy, Norms of Liberty offers a new conceptual foundation for political liberalism that takes protecting liberty, understood in terms of individual negative rights, as the primary aim of the political/legal order. Rasmussen and Den Uyl argue for construing individual rights as metanormative principles, directly tied to politics, that are used to establish the political/ legal conditions under which full moral conduct can take place. These they distinguish from normative principles, used to provide guidance for moral conduct within the ambit of normative ethics. This crucial distinction allows them to develop liberalism as a metanormative theory, not a guide for moral conduct. The moral universe need not be minimized or morality grounded in sentiment or contracts to support liberalism, they show. Rather, liberalism can be supported, and many of its internal tensions avoided, with an ethical framework of Aristotelian inspiration--one that understands human flourishing to be an objective, inclusive, individualized, agent-relative, social, and self-directed activity.

Corruption and Norms

Author : Ina Kubbe,Annika Engelbert
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-12-21
Category : Political Science
ISBN : 9783319662541

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Book Corruption and Norms Description/Summary:

This book focuses on the role of norms in the description, explanation, prediction and combat of corruption. It conceives corruption as a ubiquitous problem, constructed by specific traditions, values, norms and institutions. The chapters concentrate on the relationship between corruption and social as well as legal norms, providing comparative perspectives from different academic disciplines, theoretical and methodological backgrounds, and various country-studies. Due to the nature of social norms that are embedded in personal, local, and organizational contexts, the contributions in the volume focus in particular on the individual and institutional level of analysis (micro and meso-mechanisms). The book will be of interest to students and scholars across the fields of political science, public administration, socio-legal studies and psychology.

Norms in Argumentation

Author : Robert Maier
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release : 2019-11-18
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
ISBN : 9783110877175

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Book Norms in Argumentation Description/Summary:

Natural Goodness

Author : Philippa Foot
Publisher : Clarendon Press
Release : 2003-10-02
Category : Philosophy
ISBN : 9780191622915

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Book Natural Goodness Description/Summary:

Philippa Foot has for many years been one of the most distinctive and influential thinkers in moral philosophy. Long dissatisfied with the moral theories of her contemporaries, she has gradually evolved a theory of her own that is radically opposed not only to emotivism and prescriptivism but also to the whole subjectivist, anti-naturalist movement deriving from David Hume. Dissatisfied also with both Kantian and utilitarian ethics, she claims to have isolated a special form of evaluation that predicates goodness and defect only to living things considered as such: she finds this form of evaluation in moral judgements. Her vivid discussion ranges over topics such as practical rationality, erring conscience, and the relation between virtue and happiness, ending with a critique of Nietzsche's immoralism. Natural Goodness is the long-awaited exposition of a highly original approach to moral philosophy, representing a fundamental break away from the assumptions of recent debates. Foot challenges many prominent philosophical arguments and attitudes; hers is not, however, a work of dry theory, but full of life and feeling, written for anyone intrigued by the deepest questions about goodness and human life. This beautifully written book offers a new beginning for moral philosophy.

Social Norms

Author : Michael Hechter,Karl-Dieter Opp
Publisher : Russell Sage Foundation
Release : 2001-03-15
Category : Political Science
ISBN : 9781610442800

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Book Social Norms Description/Summary:

Social norms are rules that prescribe what people should and should not do given their social surroundings and circumstances. Norms instruct people to keep their promises, to drive on the right, or to abide by the golden rule. They are useful explanatory tools, employed to analyze phenomena as grand as international diplomacy and as mundane as the rules of the road. But our knowledge of norms is scattered across disciplines and research traditions, with no clear consensus on how the term should be used. Research on norms has focused on the content and the consequences of norms, without paying enough attention to their causes. Social Norms reaches across the disciplines of sociology, economics, game theory, and legal studies to provide a well-integrated theoretical and empirical account of how norms emerge, change, persist, or die out. Social Norms opens with a critical review of the many outstanding issues in the research on norms: When are norms simply devices to ease cooperation, and when do they carry intrinsic moral weight? Do norms evolve gradually over time or spring up spontaneously as circumstances change? The volume then turns to case studies on the birth and death of norms in a variety of contexts, from protest movements, to marriage, to mushroom collecting. The authors detail the concrete social processes, such as repeated interactions, social learning, threats and sanctions, that produce, sustain, and enforce norms. One case study explains how it can become normative for citizens to participate in political protests in times of social upheaval. Another case study examines how the norm of objectivity in American journalism emerged: Did it arise by consensus as the professional creed of the press corps, or was it imposed upon journalists by their employers? A third case study examines the emergence of the norm of national self-determination: has it diffused as an element of global culture, or was it imposed by the actions of powerful states? The book concludes with an examination of what we know of norm emergence, highlighting areas of agreement and points of contradiction between the disciplines. Norms may be useful in explaining other phenomena in society, but until we have a coherent theory of their origins we have not truly explained norms themselves. Social Norms moves us closer to a true understanding of this ubiquitous feature of social life.