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Book Chemical-Mechanical Planarization of Semiconductor Materials Description/Summary:
This book contains a comprehensive review of CMP (Chemical-Mechanical Planarization) technology, one of the most exciting areas in the field of semiconductor technology. It contains detailed discussions of all aspects of the technology, for both dielectrics and metals. The state of polishing models and their relation to experimental results are covered. Polishing tools and consumables are also covered. The leading edge issues of damascene and new dielectrics as well as slurryless technology are discussed.
Book Advances in Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) Description/Summary:
Advances in Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP), Second Edition provides the latest information on a mainstream process that is critical for high-volume, high-yield semiconductor manufacturing, and even more so as device dimensions continue to shrink. The second edition includes the recent advances of CMP and its emerging materials, methods, and applications, including coverage of post-CMP cleaning challenges and tribology of CMP. This important book offers a systematic review of fundamentals and advances in the area. Part one covers CMP of dielectric and metal films, with chapters focusing on the use of current and emerging techniques and processes and on CMP of various materials, including ultra low-k materials and high-mobility channel materials, and ending with a chapter reviewing the environmental impacts of CMP processes. New content addressed includes CMP challenges with tungsten, cobalt, and ruthenium as interconnect and barrier films, consumables for ultralow topography and CMP for memory devices. Part two addresses consumables and process control for improved CMP and includes chapters on CMP pads, diamond disc pad conditioning, the use of FTIR spectroscopy for characterization of surface processes and approaches for defection characterization, mitigation, and reduction. Advances in Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP), Second Edition is an invaluable resource and key reference for materials scientists and engineers in academia and R&D. Reviews the most relevant techniques and processes for CMP of dielectric and metal films Includes chapters devoted to CMP for current and emerging materials Addresses consumables and process control for improved CMP, including post-CMP
Book Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Microelectronic Materials Description/Summary:
Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) plays an important role in today's microelectronics industry. With its ability to achieve global planarization, its universality (material insensitivity), its applicability to multimaterial surfaces, and its relative cost-effectiveness, CMP is the ideal planarizing medium for the interlayered dielectrics and metal films used in silicon integrated circuit fabrication. But although the past decade has seen unprecedented research and development into CMP, there has been no single-source reference to this rapidly emerging technology-until now. Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Microelectronic Materials provides engineers and scientists working in the microelectronics industry with unified coverage of both the fundamental mechanisms and engineering applications of CMP. Authors Steigerwald, Murarka, and Gutmann-all leading CMP pioneers-provide a historical overview of CMP, explain the various chemical and mechanical concepts involved, describe CMP materials and processes, review the latest scientific data on CMP worldwide, and offer examples of its uses in the microelectronics industry. They provide detailed coverage of the CMP of various materials used in the making of microcircuitry: tungsten, aluminum, copper, polysilicon, and various dielectric materials, including polymers. The concluding chapter describes post-CMP cleaning techniques, and most chapters feature problem sets to assist readers in developing a more practical understanding of CMP. The only comprehensive reference to one of the fastest growing integrated circuit manufacturing technologies, Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Microelectronic Materials is an important resource for research scientists and engineers working in the microelectronics industry. An indispensable resource for scientists and engineers working in the microelectronics industry Chemical Mechanical Planarization of Microelectronic Materials is the only comprehensive single-source reference to one of the fastest growing integrated circuit manufacturing technologies. It provides engineers and scientists who work in the microelectronics industry with unified coverage of both the fundamental mechanisms and engineering applications of CMP, including: * The history of CMP * Chemical and mechanical underpinnings of CMP * CMP materials and processes * Applications of CMP in the microelectronics industry * The CMP of tungsten, aluminum, copper, polysilicon, and various dielectrics, including polymers used in integrated circuit fabrication * Post-CMP cleaning techniques * Chapter-end problem sets are also included to assist readers in developing a practical understanding of CMP.
Book Microelectronic Applications of Chemical Mechanical Planarization Description/Summary:
An authoritative, systematic, and comprehensive description of current CMP technology Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) provides the greatest degree of planarization of any known technique. The current standard for integrated circuit (IC) planarization, CMP is playing an increasingly important role in other related applications such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and computer hard drive manufacturing. This reference focuses on the chemical aspects of the technology and includes contributions from the foremost experts on specific applications. After a detailed overview of the fundamentals and basic science of CMP, Microelectronic Applications of Chemical Mechanical Planarization: * Provides in-depth coverage of a wide range of state-of-the-art technologies and applications * Presents information on new designs, capabilities, and emerging technologies, including topics like CMP with nanomaterials and 3D chips * Discusses different types of CMP tools, pads for IC CMP, modeling, and the applicability of tribometrology to various aspects of CMP * Covers nanotopography, CMP performance and defect profiles, CMP waste treatment, and the chemistry and colloidal properties of the slurries used in CMP * Provides a perspective on the opportunities and challenges of the next fifteen years Complete with case studies, this is a valuable, hands-on resource for professionals, including process engineers, equipment engineers, formulation chemists, IC manufacturers, and others. With systematic organization and questions at the end of each chapter to facilitate learning, it is an ideal introduction to CMP and an excellent text for students in advanced graduate courses that cover CMP or related semiconductor manufacturing processes.
Book Advances in CMP/polishing Technologies for the Manufacture of Electronic Devices Description/Summary:
CMP and polishing are the most precise processes used to finish the surfaces of mechanical and electronic or semiconductor components. Advances in CMP/Polishing Technologies for Manufacture of Electronic Devices presents the latest developments and technological innovations in the field - making cutting-edge R&D accessible to the wider engineering community. Most of the applications of these processes are kept as confidential as possible (proprietary information), and specific details are not seen in professional or technical journals and magazines. This book makes these processes and applications accessible to a wider industrial and academic audience. Building on the fundamentals of tribology - the science of friction, wear and lubrication - the authors explore the practical applications of CMP and polishing across various market sectors. Due to the high pace of development of the electronics and semiconductors industry, many of the presented processes and applications come from these industries. Demystifies scientific developments and technological innovations, opening them up for new applications and process improvements in the semiconductor industry and other areas of precision engineering Explores stock removal mechanisms in CMP and polishing, and the challenges involved in predicting the outcomes of abrasive processes in high-precision environments The authors bring together the latest innovations and research from the USA and Japan
The subject matter of this book is the information on the abrasive technology methods, the characteristics of the methods (for example, the technological parameters, tools, and machines), innovative methods, characteristics of surface structure and surface properties after this type of mechanical process, and application in various industrial branches and other technical and technological domains. Abrasive technology is very important, for example, in precision component manufacturing and nano-technology devices. The aim of this book is to present information on the characteristics and applications of abrasive technology, abrasive tools, tests, and also the innovative methods of this technology. This information enables scientists, engineers, and designers to ensure the soundness and integrity of the fabricated components and to develop new techniques effectively.
Book Integrated Modeling of Chemical Mechanical Planarization for Sub-Micron IC Fabrication Description/Summary:
Chemical mechanical planarization, or chemical mechanical polishing as it is simultaneously referred to, has emerged as one of the critical processes in semiconductor manufacturing and in the production of other related products and devices, MEMS for example. Since its introduction some 15+ years ago CMP, as it is commonly called, has moved steadily into new and challenging areas of semiconductor fabrication. Demands on it for consistent, efficient and cost-effective processing have been steady. This has continued in the face of steadily decreasing feature sizes, impressive increases in wafer size and a continuing array of new materials used in devices today. There are a number of excellent existing references and monographs on CMP in circulation and we defer to them for detailed background information. They are cited in the text. Our focus here is on the important area of process mod els which have not kept pace with the tremendous expansion of applications of CMP. Preston's equation is a valuable start but represents none of the subtleties of the process. Specifically, we refer to the development of models with sufficient detail to allow the evaluation and tradeoff of process inputs and parameters to assess impact on quality or quantity of production. We call that an "integrated model" and, more specifically, we include the important role of the mechanical elements of the process.
Book Tribology In Chemical-Mechanical Planarization Description/Summary:
The role that friction and contact play in the processes of wear and planarization on material surfaces is central to the understanding of Chemical-Mechanical planarization (CMP) technology, particularly when applied to nanosurfaces. Tribology in Chemical-Mechanical Planarization presents a detailed account of the CMP process in a language that is suitable for tribology professionals as well as chemists, materials scientists, physicists, and other applied scientists and engineers in fields of semiconductors and microelectronics. The first half of the book is devoted to CMP, while the other focuses on the fundamentals of tribology. As the first source to integrate CMP and tribology, the book illustrates the important role that these fields play in manufacturing and technological development. It follows with an examination of tribological principles and their applications in CMP, including integrated circuits, basic concepts in surfaces of contacts, and common defects. Other topics covered in depth include basics of friction, flash temperature, lubrication fundamentals, basics of wear, polishing particles, and pad wear. The book concludes its focus with CMP practices, discussing mechanical aspects, pad materials, elastic modulus, and cell buckling. Expanding upon the science and technology of tribology to improve the reliability, maintenance, and wear of technical equipment and other material applications, Tribology in Chemical-Mechanical Planarization provides scientists and engineers with clear foresight to the future of this technology.
Book Handbook of Chemicals and Gases for the Semiconductor Industry Description/Summary:
The first comprehensive guide to the chemicals and gases used in semiconductor manufacturing The fabrication of semiconductor devices involves a series of complex chemical processes such as photolithography, etching, cleaning, thin film deposition, and polishing. Until now, there has been no convenient source of information on the properties, applications, and health and safety considerations of the chemicals used in these processes. The Handbook of Chemicals and Gases for the Semiconductor Industry meets this need. Each of the Handbook's eight chapters is related to a specific area of semiconductor processing. The authors provide a brief overview of each step in the process, followed by tables containing physical properties, handling, safety, and other pertinent information on chemicals and gases typically used in these processes. The 270 chemical and gas entries include data on physical properties, emergency treatment procedures, waste disposal, and incompatible materials, as well as descriptions of applications, chemical mechanisms involved, and references to the literature. Appendices cross-reference entries by process, chemical name, and CAS number. The Handbook's eight chapters are: Thin Film Deposition Materials Wafer Cleaning Materials Photolithography Materials Wet and Dry Etching Materials Chemical Mechanical Planarizing Methods Carrier Gases Uncategorized Materials Semiconductor Chemicals Analysis No other single source brings together these useful and important data on chemicals and gases used in the manufacture of semiconductor devices. The Handbook of Chemicals and Gases for the Semiconductor Industry will be a valuable reference for process engineers, scientists, suppliers to the semiconductor industry, microelectronics researchers, and students.
Semiconductor Glossary is a one of a kind contribution to the pool of publications in the field of semiconductor science and engineering. It was conceived in recognition of an apparent lack of references that would provide brief, straightforward explanations of terms and terminology in the area of advanced semiconductor materials, devices, and processes with emphasis on the most current developments across all areas of nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. With over 2,000 terms defined and explained, the Second Edition of Semiconductor Glossary is the most complete reference in the field of semiconductors on the market today. Using his over 40 years of experience in advanced semiconductor research and teaching, the author selected the terms and then defined and explained them with a broad spectrum of readers in mind. Advanced undergraduate and graduate students, semiconductor professionals at all levels, as well as people with just a general interest in semiconductors should all find Semiconductor Glossary to be a useful resource.
Book Semiconductor Manufacturing Handbook Description/Summary:
This handbook will provide engineers with the principles, applications, and solutions needed to design and manage semiconductor manufacturing operations. Consolidating the many complex fields of semiconductor fundamentals and manufacturing into one volume by deploying a team of world class specialists, it allows the quick look up of specific manufacturing reference data across many subdisciplines.
Book Strength and Toughness of Materials Description/Summary:
As the shift from the Metal Age progresses, materials engineers and materials scientists seek new analytical and design methods to create stronger and more reliable materials. Based on extensive research and developmental work done at the author’s multi-disciplinary material laboratory, this graduate-level and professional reference addresses the relationship between fracture mechanisms (macroscale) and the microscopic, with the goal of explaining macroscopic fracture behavior based on a microscopic fracture mechanism. A careful fusion of mechanics and materials science, this text and monograph systematically considers an array of materials, from metals through ceramics and polymers, and demonstrates lab-tested strategies to develop desirable high-temperature materials for technological applications.
Book Run-to-Run Control in Semiconductor Manufacturing Description/Summary:
Run-to-run (R2R) control is cutting-edge technology that allows modification of a product recipe between machine "runs," thereby minimizing process drift, shift, and variability-and with them, costs. Its effectiveness has been demonstrated in a variety of processes, such as vapor phase epitaxy, lithography, and chemical mechanical planarization. The only barrier to the semiconductor industry's widespread adoption of this highly effective process control is a lack of understanding of the technology. Run to Run Control in Semiconductor Manufacturing overcomes that barrier by offering in-depth analyses of R2R control.
Book Microelectronic Applications of Chemical Mechanical Planarization Description/Summary:
An authoritative, systematic, and comprehensive description of current CMP technology Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) provides the greatest degree of planarization of any known technique. The current standard for integrated circuit (IC) planarization, CMP is playing an increasingly important role in other related applications such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and computer hard drive manufacturing. This reference focuses on the chemical aspects of the technology and includes contributions from the foremost experts on specific applications. After a detailed overview of the fundamentals and basic science of CMP, Microelectronic Applications of Chemical Mechanical Planarization: Provides in-depth coverage of a wide range of state-of-the-art technologies and applications Presents information on new designs, capabilities, and emerging technologies, including topics like CMP with nanomaterials and 3D chips Discusses different types of CMP tools, pads for IC CMP, modeling, and the applicability of tribometrology to various aspects of CMP Covers nanotopography, CMP performance and defect profiles, CMP waste treatment, and the chemistry and colloidal properties of the slurries used in CMP Provides a perspective on the opportunities and challenges of the next fifteen years Complete with case studies, this is a valuable, hands-on resource for professionals, including process engineers, equipment engineers, formulation chemists, IC manufacturers, and others. With systematic organization and questions at the end of each chapter to facilitate learning, it is an ideal introduction to CMP and an excellent text for students in advanced graduate courses that cover CMP or related semiconductor manufacturing processes.
Book Handbook of Thin Film Deposition Techniques Principles, Methods, Equipment and Applications, Second Editon Description/Summary:
The Handbook of Thin Film Deposition Techniques: Principles, Methods, Equipment and Applications, Second Edition explores the technology behind the spectacular growth in the silicon semiconductor industry and the continued trend in miniaturization over the last 20 years. This growth has been fueled in large part by improved thin film deposition techniques and the development of highly specialized equipment to enable this deposition. This second edition explains the growth of sophisticated, automatic tools capable of measuring thickness and spacing of submicron dimensions. The book covers PVD, laser and E-beam assisted deposition, MBE, and ion beam methods to bring together all of the physical vapor deposition techniques. The book also includes coverage of chemical mechanical polishing that helps attain the flatness that is required by modern lithography methods and new materials used for interconnect dielectric materials, specifically organic polyimide materials.
Book Advanced Interconnects for ULSI Technology Description/Summary:
Finding new materials for copper/low-k interconnects is critical to the continuing development of computer chips. While copper/low-k interconnects have served well, allowing for the creation of Ultra Large Scale Integration (ULSI) devices which combine over a billion transistors onto a single chip, the increased resistance and RC-delay at the smaller scale has become a significant factor affecting chip performance. Advanced Interconnects for ULSI Technology is dedicated to the materials and methods which might be suitable replacements. It covers a broad range of topics, from physical principles to design, fabrication, characterization, and application of new materials for nano-interconnects, and discusses: Interconnect functions, characterisations, electrical properties and wiring requirements Low-k materials: fundamentals, advances and mechanical properties Conductive layers and barriers Integration and reliability including mechanical reliability, electromigration and electrical breakdown New approaches including 3D, optical, wireless interchip, and carbon-based interconnects Intended for postgraduate students and researchers, in academia and industry, this book provides a critical overview of the enabling technology at the heart of the future development of computer chips.
Book Nanoparticle Engineering for Chemical-Mechanical Planarization (Open Access) Description/Summary:
In the development of next-generation nanoscale devices, higher speed and lower power operation is the name of the game. Increasing reliance on mobile computers, mobile phone, and other electronic devices demands a greater degree of speed and power. As chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) progressively becomes perceived less as black art and more as a cutting-edge technology, it is emerging as the technology for achieving higher performance devices. Nanoparticle Engineering for Chemical-Mechanical Planarization explains the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles according to each step in the CMP process, including dielectric CMP, shallow trend isolation CMP, metal CMP, poly isolation CMP, and noble metal CMP. The authors provide a detailed guide to nanoparticle engineering of novel CMP slurry for next-generation nanoscale devices below the 60nm design rule. They present design techniques using polymeric additives to improve CMP performance. The final chapter focuses on novel CMP slurry for the application to memory devices beyond 50nm technology. Most books published on CMP focus on the polishing process, equipment, and cleaning. Even though some of these books may touch on CMP slurries, the methods they cover are confined to conventional slurries and none cover them with the detail required for the development of next-generation devices. With its coverage of fundamental concepts and novel technologies, this book delivers expert insight into CMP for all current and next-generation systems.
Emerging Contaminants presents the reader with information on classification, recent studies, and adverse effects on the environment and human health of the main classes of contaminants. Emerging contaminants are synthetic or natural compounds and microorganisms produced and used by humans that cause adverse ecological and human health effects when they reach the environment. This book is organized into four sections that cover the classification of contaminants and the instrumental techniques used to quantify them, recent studies on pesticides, antibiotics as an important group of emerging contaminants, and studies of different classes of emerging contaminants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), microplastics, and others.