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A Handbook of Geoarchaeological Approaches to Settlement Sites and Landscapes

Author : Charles French
Publisher : Oxbow Books
Release : 2015-11-30
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9781785700941

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Book A Handbook of Geoarchaeological Approaches to Settlement Sites and Landscapes Description/Summary:

Geoarchaeology is a major branch of archaeological science at the interfaces between geology, geography and archaeology, involving the combined study of archaeological, soil and geomorphological records and the recognition of how natural, climatic and human-induced processes alter landscapes. The formation and modification of past soils, and occupation sequences can be examined primarily through the use of soil micromorphological techniques and various physical and geo-chemical techniques. This short text aims to explain some of the basics of geoarchaeological approaches and research design used to tackle the investigation of landscapes and settlement archaeology, and the application of soil micromorphology to archaeological situations. The intention is to present a basic handbook of good practice, with case studies and examples, that any archaeologist or aspiring geoarchaeologist can use.

Geoarchaeology and Archaeological Mineralogy

Author : Natalia Ankusheva,Igor V. Chechushkov,Ivan Stepanov,Maksim Ankushev,Polina Ankusheva
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2022
Category : Archaeological geology
ISBN : 9783030860400

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Book Geoarchaeology and Archaeological Mineralogy Description/Summary:

This book of Springer Proceedings in Geoarchaeology and Archaeological Mineralogy contains selected papers presented at the 7th Geoarchaeology Conference, which took place during October 19-23, 2020, at the South Urals Federal Research Center, Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Miass, Russia. The Proceedings combine studies in archeometry, geoarchaeology, and ancient North Eurasian technologies, including paleometallurgy, stone tools investigation, past exploitation of geological resources, bioarchaeology, residue analysis, pottery, and lithics studies. This book also specializes in various non-organic materials, rocks, minerals, ores, and metals, especially copper and metallurgical slags. Many types of research also use modern analytical methods of isotopic, chemical, and mineralogical analysis to address the composition and structure of ancient materials and the technological practices of past human populations of modern Russia, Ukraine, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Mongolia. This book is intended for archaeologists, historians, museum workers, and geologists, as well as students, researchers from other disciplines, and the general public interested in the interdisciplinary research in the field of archaeology and archaeological materials, strategies and techniques of past quarrying, mining, metallurgy and lithic technologies at different chronological periods in Eurasian steppe and adjacent forest zone.

Applied Soils and Micromorphology in Archaeology

Author : Richard I. Macphail,Paul Goldberg
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2017-12-21
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9781107011380

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Book Applied Soils and Micromorphology in Archaeology Description/Summary:

This book uniquely focuses on all aspects of archaeological soil micromorphology, based upon the authors' joint sixty years of worldwide studies.

Making One's Way in the World

Author : Martin Bell
Publisher : Oxbow Books
Release : 2020-03-31
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9781789254051

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Book Making One's Way in the World Description/Summary:

The book draws on the evidence of landscape archaeology, palaeoenvironmental studies, ethnohistory and animal tracking to address the neglected topic of how we identify and interpret past patterns of movement in the landscape. It challenges the pessimism of previous generations which regarded prehistoric routes such as hollow ways as generally undatable. The premise is that archaeologists tend to focus on ‘sites’ while neglecting the patterns of habitual movement that made them part of living landscapes. Evidence of past movement is considered in a multi-scalar way from the individual footprint to the long distance path including the traces created in vegetation by animal and human movement. It is argued that routes may be perpetuated over long timescales creating landscape structures which influence the activities of subsequent generations. In other instances radical changes of axes of communication and landscape structures provide evidence of upheaval and social change. Palaeoenvironmental and ethnohistorical evidence from the American North West coast sets the scene with evidence for the effects of burning, animal movement, faeces deposition and transplantation which can create readable routes along which are favoured resources. Evidence from European hunter-gatherer sites hints at similar practices of niche construction on a range of spatial scales. On a local scale, footprints help to establish axes of movement, the locations of lost settlements and activity areas. Wood trackways likewise provide evidence of favoured patterns of movement and past settlement location. Among early farming communities alignments of burial mounds, enclosure entrances and other monuments indicate axes of communication. From the middle Bronze Age in Europe there is more clearly defined evidence of trackways flanked by ditches and fields. Landscape scale survey and excavation enables the dating of trackways using spatial relationships with dated features and many examples indicate long-term continuity of routeways. Where fields flank routeways a range of methods, including scientific approaches, provide dates. Prehistorians have often assumed that Ridgeways provided the main axes of early movement but there is little evidence for their early origins and rather better evidence for early routes crossing topography and providing connections between different environmental zones. The book concludes with a case study of the Weald of South East England which demonstrates that some axes of cross topographic movement used as droveways, and generally considered as early medieval, can be shown to be of prehistoric origin. One reason that dryland routes have proved difficult to recognise is that insufficient attention has been paid to the parts played by riverine and maritime longer distance communication. It is argued that understanding the origins of the paths we use today contributes to appreciation of the distinctive qualities of landscapes. Appreciation will help to bring about effective strategies for conservation of mutual benefit to people and wildlife by maintaining and enhancing corridors of connectivity between different landscape zones including fragmented nature reserves and valued places. In these ways an understanding of past routeways can contribute to sustainable landscapes, communities and quality of life

Historical Archaeologies of Transhumance across Europe

Author : Eugene Costello,Eva Svensson
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-03-05
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9781351213370

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Book Historical Archaeologies of Transhumance across Europe Description/Summary:

Transhumance is a form of pastoralism that has been practised around the world since animals were first domesticated. Such seasonal movements have formed an important aspect of many European farming systems for several thousand years, although they have declined markedly since the nineteenth century. Ethnographers and geographers have long been involved in recording transhumant practices, and in the last two decades archaeologists have started to add a new material dimension to the subject. This volume brings together recent advances in the study of European transhumance during historical times, from Sweden to Spain, Romania to Ireland, and beyond that even Newfoundland. While the focus is on the archaeology of seasonal sites used by shepherds and cowherds, the contributions exhibit a high degree of interdisciplinarity. Documentary, cartographic, ethnographic and palaeoecological evidence all play a part in the examination of seasonal movement and settlement in medieval and post-medieval landscapes. Notwithstanding the obvious diversity across Europe in terms of livestock, distances travelled and socio-economic context, an extended introduction to the volume shows that cross-cutting themes are now emerging, including mobility, gendered herding, collective land-use, the agency of non-elite people and competition for grazing and markets. The book will appeal not only to archaeologists, but to historians, geographers, ethnographers, palaeoecologists and anyone interested in rural lifeways across Europe.

Molluscs in Archaeology

Author : Michael J. Allen
Publisher : Oxbow Books
Release : 2017-06-30
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9781785706110

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Book Molluscs in Archaeology Description/Summary:

The subject of ‘Molluscs in Archaeology’ has not been dealt with collectively for several decades. This new volume in Oxbow’s Studying Scientific Archaeology series addresses many aspects of mollusks in archaeology. It will give the reader an overview of the whole topic; methods of analysis and approaches to interpretation. It aims to be a broad based text book giving readers an insight of how to apply analysis to different present and past landscapes and how to interpret those landscapes. It includes Marine, Freshwater and land snails studies, and examines topics such as diet, economy, climate, environmental and land-use, isotopes and mollusks as artifacts. It aims to provide archaeologists and students with the first port of call giving them a) methods and principles, and b) the potential information mollusks can provide. It concentrates on analysis and interpretation most archaeologists and students can undertake and understand, and to 'review' the 'heavier' science in terms of potential, application and interpretational value.

Archaeology of the Ouse Valley, Sussex, to AD 1500

Author : Dudley Moore,Michael J. Allen,David Rudling
Publisher : Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
Release : 2016-07-10
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9781784913786

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Book Archaeology of the Ouse Valley, Sussex, to AD 1500 Description/Summary:

This is the first review of the archaeology of this important landscape – from Palaeolithic to medieval times by contributors all routed in the archaeology of Sussex.

People of Today 2017

Author : Lucy Hume
Publisher : eBook Partnership
Release : 2017-10-05
Category : Biography & Autobiography
ISBN : 9781999767037

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Book People of Today 2017 Description/Summary:

Established in 1982, People of Today annually recognises over 20,000 individuals who are positively influencing Britain and inspiring others through their achievements and leadership. Entry is by invitation only. The objective criteria for inclusion and removal are strictly maintained, ensuring it is the only publication of its type whose membership accurately reflects people of influence today. Expert nomination panels guarantee People of Today is uniquely current and trusted and encompasses over 40 sectors, from academia, law and business to charity, sport and the arts.

A Biography of Power: Research and Excavations at the Iron Age 'oppidum' of Bagendon, Gloucestershire (1979-2017)

Author : Tom Moore
Publisher : Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
Release : 2020-07-30
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9781789695359

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Book A Biography of Power: Research and Excavations at the Iron Age 'oppidum' of Bagendon, Gloucestershire (1979-2017) Description/Summary:

This book explores the changing nature of power and identity from the Iron Age to the Roman period in Britain. It provides fresh insights into the origins and nature of one of the lesser-known, but perhaps most significant, Late Iron Age 'oppida' in Britain: Bagendon in Gloucestershire.

Megalithic Tombs in Western Iberia

Author : Chris Scarre,Luiz Oosterbeek
Publisher : Oxbow Books
Release : 2019-12-27
Category : History
ISBN : 9781785709838

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Book Megalithic Tombs in Western Iberia Description/Summary:

Western Iberia has one of the richest inventories of Neolithic chambered tombs in Atlantic Europe, with particular concentrations in Galicia, northern Portugal and the Alentejo. Less well known is the major concentration of tombs along the Tagus valley, straddling the Portuguese-Spanish frontier. Within this cluster is the Anta da Lajinha, a small megalithic tomb in the hill-country north of the River Tagus. Badly damaged by forest fire and stone removal, it was the subject of joint British-Portuguese excavations in 2006-2008, accompanied by environmental investigations and OSL dating. This volume takes the recent excavations at Lajinha and the adjacent site of Cabeço dos Pendentes as the starting point for a broader consideration of the megalithic tombs of western Iberia. Key themes addressed are relevant to megalithic tombs more generally, including landscape, chronology, settlement and interregional relationships. Over what period of time were these tombs built and used? Do they form a horizon of intensive monument construction, or were the tombs the product of a persistent, long-lived tradition? How do they relate to the famous rock art of the Tagus valley, and to the cave burials and open-air settlements of the region, in terms of chronology and landscape? A final section considers the Iberian tombs within the broader family of west European megalithic monuments, focusing on chronologies, parallels and patterns of contact. Did the Iberian tombs emerge through connections with older established megalithic traditions in other regions such as Brittany, or were they are the outcome of more general processes operating among Atlantic Neolithic societies?

Handbook of Landscape Archaeology

Author : Bruno David,Julian Thomas
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2016-06-03
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9781315427720

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Book Handbook of Landscape Archaeology Description/Summary:

Over the past three decades, “landscape” has become an umbrella term to describe many different strands of archaeology. From the processualist study of settlement patterns to the phenomenologist’s experience of the natural world, from human impact on past environments to the environment’s impact on human thought, action, and interaction, the term has been used. In this volume, for the first time, over 80 archaeologists from three continents attempt a comprehensive definition of the ideas and practices of landscape archaeology, covering the theoretical and the practical, the research and conservation, and encasing the term in a global framework. As a basic reference volume for landscape archaeology, this volume will be the benchmark for decades to come. All royalties on this Handbook are donated to the World Archaeological Congress.

The Oxford Handbook of the Valley of the Kings

Author : Richard H. Wilkinson,Kent R. Weeks
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2016
Category : History
ISBN : 9780199931637

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Book The Oxford Handbook of the Valley of the Kings Description/Summary:

This Handbook offers an invaluable and up-to-date resource on this criticial and fascinating World Hertiage site.

The Oxford Handbook of Historical Ecology and Applied Archaeology

Author : Christian Isendahl,Daryl Stump
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2019-01-10
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9780191653346

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Book The Oxford Handbook of Historical Ecology and Applied Archaeology Description/Summary:

The Oxford Handbook of Historical Ecology and Applied Archaeology presents theoretical discussions, methodological outlines, and case-studies describing the field of overlap between historical ecology and the emerging sub-discipline of applied archaeology to highlight how modern environments and landscapes have been shaped by humans. Historical ecology is based on the recognition that humans are not only capable of modifying their environments, but that all environments on earth have already been directly or indirectly modified. This includes anthropogenic climate change, widespread deforestations, and species extinctions, but also very local alterations, the effects of which may last a few years, or may have legacies lasting centuries or more. With contributions from anthropologists, archaeologists, human geographers, and historians, this volume focuses not just on defining human impacts in the past, but on the ways that understanding these changes can help inform contemporary practices and development policies. Some chapters present examples of how ancient or current societies have modified their environments in sustainable ways, while others highlight practices that had unintended long-term consequences. The possibilities of learning from these practices are discussed, as is the potential of using the long history of human resource exploitation as a method for building or testing models of future change. The volume offers overviews for students, researchers, and professionals with an interest in conservation or development projects who want to understand what practical insights can be drawn from history, and who seek to apply their work to contemporary issues.

Geoarchaeology

Author : Carlos Cordova
Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
Release : 2018-08-30
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9781838608590

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Book Geoarchaeology Description/Summary:

Geoarchaeology is traditionally concerned with reconstructing the environmental aspects of past societies using the methods of the earth sciences. The field has been steadily enriched by scholars from a diversity of disciplines and much has happened as the importance of global perspectives on environmental change has emerged. Carlos Cordova, provides a fully up-to-date account of geoarchaeology that reflects the important changes that have occurred in the past four decades. Innovative features include: the development of the human-ecological approach and the impact of technology on this approach; how the diversity of disciplines contributes to archaeological questions; frontiers of archaeology in the deep past, particularly the Anthropocene; the geoarchaeology of the contemporary past; the emerging field of ethno-geoarchaeology; the role of geoarchaeology in global environmental crises and climate change.

Archaeological Landscape Evolution

Author : Mike T. Carson
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-06-17
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9783319314006

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Book Archaeological Landscape Evolution Description/Summary:

Landscapes have been fundamental to the human experience world-wide and throughout time, yet how did we as human beings evolve or co-evolve with our landscapes? By answering this question, we can understand our place in the complex, ever-changing world that we inhabit. This book guides readers on a journey through the concurrent processes of change in an integrated natural-cultural history of a landscape. While outlining the general principles for global application, a richly illustrated case is offered through the Mariana Islands in the northwest tropical Pacific and furthermore situated in a larger Asia-Pacific context for a full comprehension of landscape evolution at variable scales. The author examines what happened during the first time when human beings encountered the world’s Remote Oceanic environment in the Mariana Islands about 3500 years ago, followed by a continuous sequence of changing sea level, climate, water resources, forest composition, human population growth, and social dynamics. This book provides a high-resolution and long-term view of the complexities of landscape evolution that affect all of us today.

Practices in Archaeological Stratigraphy

Author : Edward C. Harris
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-06-28
Category : Social Science
ISBN : 9781483295824

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Book Practices in Archaeological Stratigraphy Description/Summary:

Practices of Archaeological Stratigraphy brings together a number of examples which illustrate the development and use of the Harris Matrix in describing and interpreting archaeological sites. This matrix, the theory of which is described in two editions of the previous book by Harris, Principles of Archaeological Stratigaphy, made possible for the first time a simple diagramatic representation of the strategraphic sequence of a site, no matter how complex. The Harris Matrix, by showing in one diagram all three linear dimensions, plus time, represents a quantum leap over the older methods which relied on sample sections only. In this book 17 essays present a sample of new work demonstrating the strengths and uses of the Harris Matrix, the first ever published collection of papers devoted solely to stratigraphy in archaeology. The crucial relationships between the Harris methods, open-area excavation techniques, the interpretation of interfaces, and the use of single-context plans and recording sheets, is clarified by reference to specific sites. These sites range from medieval Europe, through Mayan civilizations to Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia. This book will be of great value to all those involved in excavating and recording archaeological sites and should help to ensure that the maximum amount of stratigraphic information can be gathered from future investigations. * Presents case studies which illuminate the Harris matrix method, invented by Edward C. Harris * Senior editor is the inventor of this method and principle in the field * Serves as a companion volume to Harris's Principles of Archaeological Stratigraphy

The Oxford Handbook of Prehistoric Oceania

Author : Ethan E. Cochrane,Terry L. Hunt
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2018
Category : History
ISBN : 9780199925070

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Book The Oxford Handbook of Prehistoric Oceania Description/Summary:

"The Oxford Handbook of Prehistoric Oceania presents the archaeology, linguistics, environment and human biology of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. First colonized 50,000 years ago, Oceania witnessed the independent invention of agriculture, the construction of Easter Island's statues, and the development of the word's last archaic states."--Provided by publisher.

The Oxford Handbook of Wetland Archaeology

Author : Francesco Menotti,Aidan O'Sullivan
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2013
Category : Science
ISBN : 9780199573493

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Book The Oxford Handbook of Wetland Archaeology Description/Summary:

The Oxford Handbook of Wetland Archaeology is the most comprehensive survey of world wetland archaeology ever published and sets out and covers the key issues and debates in the theory and practice of wetland archaeology, which has played a crucial role in studies of our past. Due to the high quantity of well-preserved organic materials found in humid environments, the study of wetlands has allowed archaeologists to reconstruct people's everyday lives ingreat detail. Through concise essays written by over fifty of the world's leading scholars in the field, it describes the scientific and archaeological principles, methodologies, and spectacular results of past and present archaeological investigations of wetland environments.

Archaeology of Iran in the Historical Period

Author : Kamal-Aldin Niknami,Ali Hozhabri
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-05-22
Category : History
ISBN : 9783030417765

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Book Archaeology of Iran in the Historical Period Description/Summary:

This collection of twenty-eight essays presents an up-to-date survey of pre-Islamic Iran, from the earliest dynasty of Illam to the end of Sasanian empire, encompassing a rich diversity of peoples and cultures. Historically, Iran served as a bridge between the earlier Near Eastern cultures and the later classical world of the Mediterranean, and had a profound influence on political, military, economic, and cultural aspects of the ancient world. Written by international scholars and drawing mainly on the field of practical archaeology, which traditionally has shared little in the way of theories and methods, the book provides crucial pieces to the puzzle of the national identity of Iranian cultures from a historical perspective. Revealing the wealth and splendor of ancient Iranian society – its rich archaeological data and sophisticated artistic craftsmanship – most of which has never before been presented outside of Iran, this beautifully illustrated book presents a range of studies addressing specific aspects of Iranian archaeology to show why the artistic masterpieces of ancient Iranians rank among the finest ever produced. Together, the authors analyze how archaeology can inform us about our cultural past, and what remains to still be discovered in this important region.